5 level of prevention by Leavell and Clark (1958) is the foundation of public health. The prevention activities are typically categorized into three which are primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.
Primary prevention consists of health promotion and spesific prevention. Secondary prevetion consists of early diagnosis and prompt treatment, dissability limitation.
Moreover, the last category is tertiary prevention with rehabilitation as the activity.
5 Level of Prevention
1. Health promotion
Health promotion include in primary prevention. The aims are to encourage people to have a healthy lifestyle and more aware from the risk of disease.
The examples of health promotion activities is health education, such as socialization of the dangers of smoking, or another diseases.
Also read: Health Promotion Challenges during COVID-19 Pandemic
2. Spesific protection
These level intend to protect people by giving them spesific prevention. Therefore, we have to inhibit the causes of disease before the disease occurs.
The implementation of spesific protection is immunizations and also reducing the exposure to occupational hazards.
3. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment
These level include in secondary prevention. The examples are screening, blood pressure test, or doing medical check-up routinely.
The first goals of these level are to identify individuals, the second is to prevent transmission of infectious diseases. Thirdly, is to provide early treatment before the disease occurs or gets worse.
4. Dissability limitation
At this stage, preventions intended to reduce of the consequences of diseases that are clinically advanced (severe).
The goals are to limit or reduce disability, prevent complications and prevent death.
Also read: What is Epidemiology in Public Health?
These is the last level which is include in tertiary prevention. The goals is to help the patients to accommodate their disability.
These level also aimed to retrain individuals / patients to be able to return to their activity as usual and improve the quality of life.
Notes from DeveHealth:
In conclusion, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Therefore, in public health always aim to prevent the risk of disease before people get sick.
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